Thursday, February 26, 2015

The Importance of Testosterone In the Body and its Functions

As the principal male sex hormone, Testosterone is responsible for governing the development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics (deepening of the voice, bodily and facial hair growth, increased sebum secretion on the skin, and development and growth of the male sexual organs which includes spermatogenesis (development of sperm) and increase in libido and sexual function. All of these functions are known as male secondary sex characteristics as well as androgenic (masculinizing) effects and they cannot function or develop properly or efficiently in an environment in which Testosterone levels are inadequate.

Although it is considered an androgenic effect as well, the muscle growth promoting effects have been categorized more independently as an anabolic effect.
The word ‘anabolic’ refers to the promotion of tissue growth within the body, and in this case refers to the growth promotion of muscle tissue. This occurs through Testosterone’s ability to signal an increase in the rate of protein synthesis (the rate at which the body can synthesize and create new strands of contractile protein within muscle tissue). Hence this is why males on average naturally are more muscular than females and why males normally carry a heavier lean body weight than females do. Females possess very miniscule amounts of Testosterone, and this can be seen where it has been discovered that the average male endogenously produces approximately 2.5 – 11mg daily of Testosterone. In comparison, females manufacture approximately 0.25mg daily of Testosterone, which is approximately 90% less (or 1/10th) than men. In females, their primary sex hormone is Estrogen, and it too is a steroid hormone, although not an anabolic steroid. By virtue of this distinction, Estrogen exhibits very different effects in the body compared to Testosterone, hence the vast differences between males and females. For example, women naturally possess a ‘softer’ tone and naturally hole more body fat than males do, which is a typical characteristic of Estrogen as it does promote fat retention/storage in various key areas of the body, which is important for female-specific roles (such as pregnancy and fetal development). In addition to this difference, females also exhibit a shorter height, vastly less muscle mass than men, and are far more prone to age-related bone deterioration. This is a direct result of the difference in hormonal dynamics between men and women.

How Testosterone Specifically Works at the Cellular Level:
As with all hormones, the systemic and cellular effects of Testosterone are quite intricate and involve various mechanisms that are both direct as well as indirect in its effects. All anabolic steroids share this property, as essentially, all anabolic steroids are derivatives of Testosterone and therefore possess much of the same properties just as a son shares the same genetic properties passed down from the parent. There are many tissues in which Testosterone exhibits its effects. Of course, the beginnings of the journey in Testosterone’s job involve its transport systemically in the bloodstream as it is pumped throughout the body. Through this avenue of travel and transport, the hormone is free to travel to a variety of target tissues within the body and act as a messenger to tell those cells within those tissues what to do. The specific target tissues of Testosterone include muscle tissue (skeletal muscle), sub-dermal and dermal tissue (beneath the skin and the skin respectively), the scalp, kidneys, bone, the central nervous system, and prostate. What occurs in these tissues is the same general action and activity of all hormones: the hormone binds to a receptor situated either on or within the cell of the particular tissue type, and will initiate a message to the cell to instruct the cell to perform a particular job. In the case of steroid hormones, such as Testosterone and Estrogen, the specific receptors are located inside the cell. Testosterone will specifically bind to androgen receptors there in order to initiate its effects. Only steroid hormones possess the ability to bind to receptors located within cells, as the steroidal nature of Testosterone, Estrogen, Cortisol, or any other type of steroid hormone allows the hormone to be of a fat-soluble nature.

Other hormone types such as peptide hormones (also known as protein hormones) must bind to receptors located on the outer surface of the cell membrane, as they cannot proceed inside the cell to interact with receptors there. Testosterone can therefore only affect tissues and cells in the body that retain the specific hormone receptor required (the androgen receptor) and therefore will only affect certain tissues and cells in the body. All hormones of all 3 types (steroid hormones, peptide hormones, mono-amine hormones) operate in this hormone-receptor interaction and this is what they all do. Although it is a very vague and non-specific description, the interaction with a hormone binding to a receptor site is described within science and biology as being very much like a lock and key, in which the key is the hormone and the lock is the receptor – both need to fit almost perfectly with one another for a specific action to occur.

Non-steroid hormones, such as peptide and mono-amine hormones operate in the same lock and key manner, but they (as previously mentioned) will bind to and activate receptors located on the outer surface of the cell. The manner by which non-steroid hormones transmit signals through receptors is different from steroid hormones, whereby a peptide or mono-amine hormone will bind to the receptor  located on the surface of the cell, and this will enable various enzymes and proteins within the cell to act as messengers. These proteins that are then activated as messengers are known as ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) and cAMP (cyclic AMP), which then travel within the cell to the nucleus of the cell in order to activate gene transcription. Although the general function of non-steroid hormones are the same as steroid hormones, the actual steps and specific action in certain stages is indeed different.

As previously mentioned, Testosterone will enter the target cell(s) by diffusion through the cellular phospholipid bilayer (the layer that encases and encompasses the whole cell), and it will travel through the cytosol (the fluid-filled space inside of the cell) towards the androgen receptor. Once the receptor is located, Testosterone will then bind with the receptor to form what is properly known as the receptor complex. The complex (or ‘receptor complex’) refers to the now bound receptor and hormone together as one. When this occurs, the complex then travels to the nucleus of the cell, which is where it will activate certain DNA sequences. These specific DNA strands/sequences are specific to the intention of Testosterone’s effects on the cell, and they are known as the ‘hormone response element’. For example, in the case of muscle cells, this will activate gene transcription (copying and reading of that specific code of DNA) that will instruct the cell to begin the synthesis and construction of contractile proteins that will ultimately increase muscle strength and muscle size. In layman’s terms, Testosterone is responsible for going into a cell, unlocking the container inside the cell that contains the instructions/blueprints for the cell to do a specific job, and it then tells the cell to do this specific job. In the example given with muscle cells, it informs the muscle cell to begin growth of new muscle tissue.

Thursday, February 19, 2015

The benefits and capabilities of GP Mast cycles

GP Mast  (Drostanolone Propionate) is a dihydrotestosterone (DHT) derived anabolic steroid.  Specifically, GP Mast is the DHT hormone that has been structurally altered by the addition of a methyl group at the carbon 2 position, This protects the hormone from the metabolic breakdown by the 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme, which is found in the skeletal muscle. It also greatly increases the hormone’s anabolic nature. This simple structural change is all it takes to create Drostanolone, and from here the small/short Propionate ester is attached in order to control the hormone’s release time. Drostanolone Enanthate can also be found through some underground labs, which does not have to be injected as frequently, but it is somewhat rare compared to the Propionate version. On a functional basis, GP Mast is well-known for being one of the only anabolic steroids with strong anti-estrogenic properties. Not only does this steroid carry no estrogenic activity, but it can actually act as an anti-estrogen in the body. This is why it has been effective in the treatment of breast cancer.
In fact, the combination of Masteron (GP Mast) and Nolvadex (Tamoxifen Citrate) has been shown to be far more effective than chemotherapy in the treatment of inoperable breast cancer in postmenopausal women. This also makes it a popular steroid among bodybuilders as it could actually prohibit the need for an anti-estrogen when used in the right cycle. This will also prove advantageous during the cutting phase due to the hardening effects it can provide. Masteron carries relatively low anabolic and androgenic ratings; however, these ratings are somewhat misleading. It’s important to remember DHT, the basis of Masteron, is five times more androgenic than testosterone with a much stronger binding affinity to the androgen receptor. This again promotes a harder look and can also enhance fat loss. Most all anabolic steroids are well-noted for enhancing the metabolic rate, but strong androgen's have a tendency to directly promote lipolysis. As an anabolic, GP Mast isn’t well-known for promoting gains in lean muscle mass. It has never been used for muscle wasting in a therapeutic sense and will almost always be found in cutting plans among performance athletes. It can, however, promote significant boosts in strength, which could prove beneficial to an athlete who may not necessarily be looking for raw mass.

Effects of Masteron:
Without question, the effects of GP Mast will be displayed in the most efficient way during a cutting cycle. However, for the effects to be truly appreciated the individual will need to be extremely lean. This is why the hormone will most commonly be found at the end of bodybuilding contest prep cycles as the individual should already be fairly lean at this stage. The added Masteron will help him lose that last bit of fat that often hangs on for dear life at the end of a cycle. It will also ensure his physique appears as hard as can be. Of course, the anti-estrogenic effect will simply enhance this overall look. For those that are not competitive bodybuilder lean, it is possible that the effects of Masteron may not be all that noticeable. The individual who is under 10% body fat should be able to notice some results and produce a harder, dryer look, but much over 10% and the effects may not be all that pronounced. As a potent androgen, GP Mast can benefit the athlete looking for a boost in strength. This can be a very beneficial steroid for an athlete who is following a calorie restricted diet in an effort to maintain a specific body weight necessary for his pursuit. The individual could easily enjoy moderate increases in strength and a slight improvement in recovery and muscular endurance without unwanted body weight gain. As a bulking agent, the effects of GP Mast n will prove to be rather week. It is possible the hormone could provide gains in mass similar to Primobolan Depot, which won’t be that strong either, if the total dose was high enough. However, the relative gain in size will be very moderate with many anabolic steroids being far more suited for this period of steroidal supplementation. There are those who may wish to include GP Mast in a bulking plan for its anti-estrogenic and fat loss effects. The latter would ensure they kept their body fat gain minimized during off-season bulking phases, but this isn’t reason enough to use it in this phase. Body fat should be controllable without it. As for the anti-estrogenic effects, off-season cycles are normally comprised of large amounts of aromatase activity due to high doses of testosterone. Progesterone activity is also commonly high with the addition of Nandrolone compounds and possible Trenbolone. Consider additional Anadrol or Dianabol and this estrogenic activity can become very pronounced. Unfortunately, while possessing anti-estrogenic effects, Masteron will not be strong enough to combat this level of estrogenic activity.

GP Mast (Masteron) accomplishes for the user is its synergistic effects with the use of other anabolic steroids in Masteron cycles. GP Mast is indeed a stronger anabolic than Testosterone itself, but it does not possess an anabolic rating very significantly above Testosterone itself, and might be weaker in some instances. Masteron therefore makes up for its lack of anabolic strength in its ability to enhance the effects and capabilities of other anabolic steroids it may be stacked with within a Masteron cycle. Very rarely is Masteron ever utilized on its own, and so its greatest capabilities and benefits arise with the use of other anabolic steroids alongside it. Masteron’s anti-estrogen capabilities through its aromatase inhibition does indeed contribute to this, but it also has the capability of binding to SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin), preventing that SHBG from binding to the other anabolic steroids being used, such as Testosterone. SHBG is a protein that binds to sex steroids, such as Testosterone, and renders them inactive for as long as SHBG is bound to them (this is the difference between ‘free’ Testosterone and ‘bound’ Testosterone, where bound Testosterone has been bound to SHBG). Many DHT-derivatives exhibit this beneficial and synergistic effect, and Masteron shares this benefit as well.

The benefits and capabilities of GP Mast cycles are best taken advantage of with the use of other anabolic steroids alongside Masteron itself. Although Masteron is not ideal for the purpose of bulking, its use in bulking cycles can be validated through its use alongside Testosterone in a bulking cycle, for example. Run on its own, Masteron is regarded as a sub-optimal anabolic steroid. It still reserves its special place as a precontest and/or cutting compound that is best used alongside other anabolic steroids.

Beginner Masteron cycles would typically utilize some form of basic Testosterone (Enanthate, Cypionate, or most commonly, Propionate) at a general dose of 400 – 500mg weekly, alongside a Masteron dosage of around 400mg per week. This would generally be a cutting or pre-contest cycle in which the user’s goal is to shed body fat and to ‘harden up’ the physique. The reason for the common use of Testosterone Propionate in Masteron cycles is primarily due to the fact that Masteron is readily and primarily available as Drostanolone Propionate and it therefore melds perfectly with Testosterone Propionate for obvious reasons.

Intermediate Masteron cycles will usually introduce a third compound into the Masteron cycle, usually an oral anabolic steroid. Winstrol or Anavar (or even Primobolan) are typical choices. Once again, such a cycle would be a precontest or fat loss cycle, which is the reason for the inclusion of such compounds as Winstrol, Anavar or Primobolan, due to the fact that they are all known as being non-estrogenic compounds typically utilized for the purpose of lean mass or cutting body fat. An oral steroid typically used for bulking, such as Dianabol or Anadrol, are rarely combined with Masteron. However, the truth is that these compounds can also be thrown into Masteron cycles as well, but this is a fairly rare occurrence considering the nature of Masteron itself.

Due to the effects of Masteron on estrogen related side effects, Masteron is a very useful tool (especially in competitive bodybuilding) when cutting. As higher levels of estrogen result in water retention, Masteron inhibits water retention, and many users claim that their muscles feel very full and tight on Masteron, with it giving them amazing 'muscle pumps' in the gym. Use of Masteron (in combination with other appropriate meds) at low body fat levels results in the user seeing fine detail of the muscles being accentuated, such as striations and the fine details of the muscle. Masteron helps draw out the water from between the skin and the muscle giving this very cut look (at low body fat levels). Not many other AS medicines can give such effects on muscle detail as those seen with Masteron.

Despite these effects of Masteron, it is a rather weak AS in itself. One would hardly benefit at all from use of Masteron on its own, and furthermore use of Masteron alone may result in loss of libido due to shutdown of the body's natural testosterone production. For these reasons, it is always recommended to stack GP Mast  (Masteron) with other steroids.

The dosages that should be used with Masteron are:

    350-500mg per week (propionate version, injected every other day)
    400-600mg per week (enanthate version, injected twice per week)

An example of an excellent cutting cycle for an advanced user would be: (6-10 weeks)

    150mg Testosterone propionate every other day
    50mg Trenbolone acetate every day (or 100mg every other day)
    150mg Masteron (propionate) every other day
    50mg Winstrol every day, last 4 weeks of cycle only

Of course with such an intermediate/advanced cycle, the user could also incorporate other medicines such as Clenbuterol, Ephedrine, T3, growth hormone, IGF, etc.

A more novice cutting cycle may consist of: (6-8 weeks)

    100mg Testosterone propionate every other day
    100mg Masteron (propionate) every other day

When abused or overdosed, GP Mast  (Masteron) can lead to oily skin, acne, body/facial hair growth, deepening of the voice, and hair loss. It may even cause increased sebum secretion (oily skin), increased bouts of acne (associated with increased sebum secretion), bodily and facial hair growth, and the increased risk of male pattern baldness. In women, Masteron can cause side effects like development of male secondary sex characteristics such as deepening of the voice, growth of body and facial hair), clitoral enlargement, and menstrual irregularities. Abuse of this steroid can even lead to suppression of the HPTA (Hypothalamic Pituitary Testicular Axis) and natural endogenous Testosterone production. Therefore, the use of post cycle therapy drugs like Clomid or Nolvadex is highly recommended to restore the normalization of the HPTA and endogenous Testosterone production as quickly as possible.

Thursday, February 12, 2015

Trenbolone very powerful steroid by Geneza Pharmaceuticals

Trenbolone is a very powerful steroid that has never been FDA approved for use in humans. It was originally developed as Finaplex pellets for use as a veterinary product to be put under the skin of cattle. However over time bodybuilders have realized its unique properties and powerful benefits and it has become a favorite anabolic steroid for many, despite having more harsh side effects than most other steroids. Many people would convert the pellets into an injectable form, in a rather crude and dangerous manner that would neither be safe nor sterile, and poses many risks. For the user who understandably likes to stick to pharmaceutical grade steroids, unfortunately there is no such form of trenbolone available.

Trenbolone is a highly androgenic steroid, with binding to the Androgen Receptor (AR) in the region of three times as high as testosterone. It does not aromatise and so is not subject to estrogen side effects. In addition to high androgenicity, it is also extremely anabolic too, thus is very good at building muscle mass, and retaining muscle mass in a calorie deficient mode. It is also thought that Trenbolone inhibits cortisol production directly through the glucocorticoid receptors.
Trenbolone is often found to be a body transforming drug, and also can aid a little in fat loss. This may be due to the very strong binding of trenbolone to the AR, which has been postulated to be one mechanism that results in the activation of fat loss pathways, possible through direct binding to fat cells' ARs. This makes Trenbolone a favourite among bodybuilders for cutting, and in addition to these benefits, Trenbolone usually results in large increases in strength due to its high androgenic effects.

Typically today underground labs produce Trenbolone acetate as 75g/ml or 100mg/ml. It is often recommended first-time users of Trenbolone to use the faster acting acetate in case the side effects become too much for the user, they can then come off of the steroid very quickly and it is out of the system much quicker than, for example, the Enanthate ester. For the novice user, 75mg or 100mg every other day (eod) is advised, however due to the acetate ester being even shorter than a Propionate ester and the half life 1 day or less, to both reduce sides and aid gains, it is advisable that the user (if they can bear every day injections) injects Trenbolone acetate every day (ed), at 37.5-50mg ed.

More advanced users may find that taking the Trenbolone to amounts over 500mg per week has very desirable effects on strength and body composition, however note that the side effects will also increase with the increase in dose. Due to the negative effect that Trenbolone has on libido, it is not generally recommended to take Trenbolone without testosterone. However, one can take Trenbolone for short periods without testosterone and introduce an aid such as Proviron (metsterolone) to help with the libido issues, along with proper extensive post cycle therapy (PCT) for recovery. A typical test-free cycle with trenbolone may include something like 600mg Primobolan per week, 400mg trenbolone enanthate per week, for 10 weeks, PCT starting 2 weeks after last injections.

Side effects of Trenbolone are very different. Trenbolone is the one that should be used with extreme caution and only after plenty of research into its side effects and common cycles have been carried out. Trenbolone side effects can be very bad to many users, so much so that they will not use it despite its very positive effects on the body and strength. Firstly, as Trenbolone is so androgenic, all side effects that are seen with strong androgen's can be expected (if prone) with Trenbolone. If one is prone to male pattern baldness (MPB) than Trenbolone will likely speed this up. Some users find acne on Trenbolone worse than when on any other steroid. Certainly Trenbolone is not recommended for female users due to its strong androgenic properties and the common side effects that manifest themselves in females who use strong androgen's.

Despite the fact that Trenbolone cannot aromatise, due to the progesterone route it can cause things like gynecomastia, but this will only really happen in the presence of estrogen. This does happen though in many users, as Trenbolone is usually stacked with a testosterone, which obviously can and will convert to estrogen. Gynecomastia from Trenbolone can be quite bad many will find, however if you do not suffer from this than other estrogenic side effects should not be of worry, as trenbolone does not cause any water retention or similar, but in fact often gives a hardened look and feel to the muscles.

Trenbolone also seems to give many users poor sleep patterns and insomnia. In addition, it can cause severe sweating in many, both during the night time and also just from doing the smallest of activities such as walking up stairs, etc. It also can impair to a certain degree, cardiovascular function, which means that it is not ideal for use in those who regular partake in such sports or activity that require a decent level of cardiovascular fitness.

Trenbolone also increases blood pressure in many users, some to such a degree that they have to cease using it. Thus it is recommended that one who wishes to use trenbolone, invests in a blood pressure monitor so they can regularly measure their blood pressure and keep an eye on it throughout the cycle.

Many people claim that Trenbolone has a negative effect on the kidneys. There are many of these claims certainly across the Internet since its use has become more widespread. However, there is no real evidence for these claims, and certainly I have seen many long-term users of Trenbolone have kidney function tests that are well within the normal range. Perhaps the reason for this theory is the fact that when using Trenbolone, many find that their urine can become a much darker more orange-brown colour. However, this is due to the fact that Trenbolone undergoes very little modification or breakdown and is excreted as a rust-coloured oxidised form in the urine. In addition to this, any damage to kidney may not even be directly due to the Trenbolone, but more to do with the increased sweating and water loss from excessive body heat whilst on Trenbolone, without the sufficient addition of water intake. Thus it is recommended if running Trenbolone to keep the water intake high.

As Trenbolone is such a strong steroid, it is very harsh on the HTPA axis and will shut down the body's natural testosterone production very easily and, for many, very harshly. It is comparable that people can experience with Deca, and longer cycles may need to include the use of HCG to restore one's own natural production of testosterone. Recovery from cycles containing Trenbolone is not easy, and requires a very well thought out and stringent PCT routine and diet.

For those who want more dramatic results and who are familiar with the use of Trenbolone cycles, then it is possible to use it at a higher dosage as long as it is tolerated. It is often used in overlapping cycles that look much like this one:

    Weeks One through Nine – Deca Durabolin and testosterone at recommended doses.
    Weeks 10, 11 and 12 – Add Trenbolone at 100mg/eod dose.
    Weeks 13 through 20 – Continue with testosterone, drop Deca Durabolin and adjust dose of Trenbolone as tolerated up to 100mg/ed.

Overall, Trenbolone is one of the most powerful and thereby most popular anabolic steroids available for use today.

Wednesday, February 4, 2015

Benefits of Testosterone Therapy

What can you expect from testosterone treatment? It's impossible to predict, because every man is different. Many men report improvement in energy level, sex drive, and quality of erections. Testosterone also increases bone density, muscle mass, and insulin sensitivity in some men.

Men also often report an improvement in mood from testosterone replacement. Whether these effects are barely noticeable, or a major boost, is highly individualized.
The common preparations of testosterone replacement have frequent, mild side effects. Testosterone side effects most often include rash, itching, or irritation at the site where the testosterone is applied.

Testosterone replacement so far seems to be generally safe. Experts emphasize that the benefits and risks of long-term testosterone therapy are unknown, because large clinical trials haven't yet been done.
Over time, the testicular “machinery” that makes testosterone gradually becomes less effective, and testosterone levels start to fall, by about 1% a year, beginning in the 40s. As men get into their 50s, 60s, and beyond, they may start to have signs and symptoms of low testosterone such as lower sex drive and sense of vitality, erectile dysfunction, decreased energy, reduced muscle mass and bone density, and anemia. Taken together, these signs and symptoms are often called hypogonadism (“hypo” meaning low functioning and “gonadism” referring to the testicles). Studies have shown that testosterone-replacement therapy may offer a wide range of benefits for men with hypogonadism, including improved libido, mood, cognition, muscle mass, bone density, and red blood cell production. But little consensus exists on what constitutes low testosterone, when testosterone supplementation makes sense, or what risks patients face. Much of the current debate focuses on the long-held belief that testosterone may stimulate prostate cancer.

The primary hallmark of low testosterone is low sexual desire or libido, but another can be erectile dysfunction, and any man who complains of erectile dysfunction should get his testosterone level checked. Men may experience other symptoms, such as more difficulty achieving an orgasm, less-intense orgasms, a smaller amount of fluid from ejaculation, and a feeling of numbness in the penis when they see or experience something that would normally be arousing. The more of these symptoms there are, the more likely it is that a man has low testosterone. Many physicians tend to dismiss these “soft symptoms” as a normal part of aging, but they are often treatable and reversible by normalizing testosterone levels. There are a number of drugs that may lessen sex drive, including the BPH drugs finasteride (Proscar) and dutasteride (Avodart). Those drugs can also decrease the amount of the ejaculatory fluid, no question. But a reduction in orgasm intensity usually does not go along with treatment for BPH. Erectile dysfunction does not usually go along with it either, though certainly if somebody has less sex drive or less interest, it’s more of a challenge to get a good erection.

How do you determine whether a man is a candidate for testosterone-replacement therapy:
There are two ways that we determine whether somebody has low testosterone. One is a blood test and the other is by characteristic symptoms and signs, and the correlation between those two methods is far from perfect. Generally men with the lowest testosterone have the most symptoms and men with highest testosterone have the least. But there are some men who have low levels of testosterone in their blood and have no symptoms.

Traditionally, anti-androgen medications have been used in combination with LHRH agonists to block testosterone. When anti-androgens are used alone it is called anti-androgen monotherapy. This approach is attractive for some men because it causes in a milder degree of testosterone blockade with less side effects. There are three anti-androgen agents - Casodex, Flutamide, and Nilutamide. They work by keeping testosterone away from the androgen receptor, an enzymatic "switch" inside the prostate cancer cell. This switch stimulates cell growth when it's turned on. Anti-androgens keep the switch in the "off" position. Because anti-androgens do not eliminate testosterone altogether, they have fewer side effects than the LHRH agonists such as Lupron, Trelstar, Eligard and Zoladex.

Clinicians with experience using Casodex monotherapy estimate that Casodex monotherapy is about 70% as effective as the LHRH agonists but with only 30% of the toxicity. Anti-androgens have been studied in prospective randomized trials as stand-alone therapy and combined with radiation. Overall, compared to LHRH agonists, side effects are certainly less. And compared to placebo, they clearly retard prostate cancer growth. The only caveat with Casodex monotherapy is a higher risk of breast growth. This can be partially or completely prevented with prophylactic breast radiation or an estrogen blocking pill called Femara.
Whenever the action of testosterone is inhibited, side effects ensue--hot flashes, osteoporosis, loss of muscle and loss of libido are typical. Many other side effects can also occur. Casodex monotherapy is less likely to induce muscle loss and less likely to reduce libido than the LHRH agonists. For example, only about 50% of younger men lose their libido whereas about 80% of men lose their libido with LHRH agonists.

There is one side effect that is more common with Casodex monotherapy than with LHRH agonists - breast enlargement. The medical term is gynecomastia. Gynecomastia occurs in 10% to 20% of men treated with LHRH agonists and in 50% to 60% of men on AAM. Gynecomastia can be prevented with radiation or an estrogen blocking pill called Femara. However, once breast tissue develops, it can only be removed with liposuction or surgery. To be effectively prevented, the radiation or the Femara must be started prior to starting treatment.