Wednesday, March 19, 2014

Anabolic steroids side effects and Liver Function

Anabolic steroids are effective in enhancing athletic performance. The trade off, however, is the occurrence of adverse side effects which can jeopardize health. Since AS have effects on several organ systems, a myriad of side effects can be found. In general, the orally administered AS have more adverse effects than parenteral administered AS. In addition, the type of AS is not only important for the advantageous effects, but also for the adverse effects. Especially the AS containing a 17-alkyl group have potentially more adverse affects, in particular to the liver. One of the problems with athletes, in particular strength athletes and bodybuilders, is the use of oral and parenteral AS at the same time ("stacking"), and in dosages which may be several (up to 40 times) the recommended therapeutically dosage. The frequency and severity of side effects is quite variable. It depends on several factors such as type of drug, dosage, duration of use and the individual sensitivity and response.

Anabolic steroids may exert a profound adverse effect on the liver. This is particularly true for orally administered AS. The parenterally administered AS seem to have less serious effects on the liver. Testosterone cypionate, testosterone enanthate and other injectable anabolic steroids seem to have little adverse effects on the liver. However, lesions of the liver have been reported after parenteral nortestosterone administration, and also occasionally after injection of testosterone esters. The influence of AS on liver function has been studied extensively. The majority of the studies involve hospitalized patients who are treated for prolonged periods for various diseases, such as anemia, renal insufficiency, impotence, and dysfunction of the pituitary gland. In clinical trials, treatment with anabolic steroids resulted in a decreased hepatic excretory function. In addition, intra hepatic cholestasis, reflected by itch and jaundice, and hepatic peliosis were observed. Hepatic peliosis is a hemorrhagic cystic degeneration of the liver, which may lead to fibrosis and portal hypertension. Rupture of a cyst may lead to fatal bleeding.

Benign (adenoma's) and malign tumors (hepatocellular carcinoma) have been reported. There are rather strong indications that tumors of the liver are caused when the anabolic steroids contain a 17-alpha-alkyl group. Usually, the tumors are benign adenoma's, that reverse after stopping with steroid administration. However, there are some indications that administration of anabolic steroids in athletes may lead to hepatic carcinoma. Often these abnormalities remain asymptomatic, since peliosis hepatis and liver tumors do not always result in abnormalities in the blood variables that are generally used to measure liver function.

AS use is often associated with an increase in plasma activity of liver enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). These enzymes are present in hepatocytes in relatively high concentrations, and an increase in plasma levels of these enzymes reflect hepatocellular damage or at least increased permeability of the hepatocellular membrane. In longitudinal studies of athletes treated with anabolic steroids, contradictory results were obtained on the plasma activity of liver enzymes (AST, AST, LDH, GGT, AP). In some studies, enzymes were increased, whereas in others no changes were found. When increases were found, the values were moderately increased and normalized within weeks after abstinence. There are some suggestions that the occurrence of hepatic enzyme leakage, is partly determined by the pre-treatment condition of the liver. Therefore, individuals with abnormal liver function appear to be at risk.

Friday, March 14, 2014

Cytomel Doses and Cycles

We have established that as a performance enhancing athlete Cytomel is to only be used in conjunction with anabolic steroids and never alone as use alone will in-fact result in a loss of muscle tissue. With this in mind the next question is when is the best time to use? It should go without saying that during cutting cycles such as a competitive bodybuilding cycle is the best time to use this medication and common practice is to use Cytomel the final 6 weeks of competition to get rid of that last bit of fat, however, it can be successfully used for the entire duration of a diet but one will need to keep an eye on tissue loss if this path is taken. For most a cycle of Cytomel that is in the 6-8 week range will prove to be all the Cytomel they’ll ever need. As for the amounts, generally 25mcg per day is a good place to start with increases of 12.5mcg being applied as needed. This protocol includes Cytomel cycles for both men and women; however both will necessarily keep the dose as low as possible and only increase as needed. Most men can increase their dose safely to 150mcg per day while women will necessarily keep a maximum dose at 100mcg per day. In either case, learn to listen to your body, learn how to accurately observe your body and the effects and if you do you’ll find your Cytomel use to be more enjoyable and effective. There is a final note that will prove to provide a great benefit in thyroid recovery after use is discontinued, easing into recovery is far more beneficial than a cold turkey stop. There is no need to gradually ramp down but rather simply drop your dose down to the original starting point of 25mcg every day and hold for approximately two weeks. By following this method you will ensure your thyroid begins production sooner than later.

The Cytomel Myths:
A common myth revolving Cytomel is that it will damage your thyroid production beyond repair and while it is possible for this myth to hold a small amount of truth it is generally far exaggerated and borne of fear. While extreme Cytomel use for an extreme amount of time may have a damaging effect there is no hard proof, however, we do know that Cytomel can be used for decent lengths of time, up to nearly a year with no permanent damage being done to the thyroid. However, most will never find a need to use any thyroid medication for this extended period of time unless they already suffer from some level of permanent thyroid damage. Nevertheless, make no mistake, the use of Cytomel will prevent your thyroid from producing its own natural T3 hormone but it will recover full capabilities in most all cases in a mere 2-3 months once use is discontinued and often sooner in some individuals.

Wednesday, March 12, 2014

Medical Routine of Anabolic Steroids

Anabolic steroids are used because of their ability to improve completion by increasing muscle mass and decreasing cadaver fat, so their use depends on the type of sport undertaken. It is believed that anabolic steroid use is widespread in competitive bodybuilding. Steroid use in sport is illegal and international athletes are tested to prevent some gaining an unfair advantage. Anabolic steroids are also used, especially by men, to change their corpse form towards more muscular build.
Steroids are used for treating delayed pubescence; some types of impotence; wasting of the body due to such conditions as HIV; some types of anemia; osteoporosis (brittle bones in menopausal women) and for itching caused by a liver condition called first bilary obstacle.

Thursday, March 6, 2014

Human growth hormone

Human growth hormone (HGH) is a natural hormone produced in the pituitary gland, which promotes standard growth and development in the body. It activates protein production in muscle cells and the put out of vitality from fats. It is typically used to rouse growth in children with hormone deficiency, or to treat people with strict illnesses, burns or infection where demolition of human tissue and muscle occurs.

A genetically engineered or ‘recombinant’ version of HGH has been produced (rHGH). Test tube experiments have shown that it can inspire immune cells such as ordinary killer (NK) cells, which are related to tumour control and T-cells. HGH is also known as Somatrem or Somatotropin. HGH is a licensed treatment that can be prescribed on the National Condition Service for children with short stature as a end result of growth hormone deficiency. However, it is not licensed for prescribing to people with HIV in Europe. HGH is also very expensive to produce, casting doubt on the feasibility of its introduction into procedure HIV anxiety.